Yes, they do exist, and you don’t need to be a witch to cast a spell or a wizard to set a curse.
Spells, for instance, can be person, place or wish specific – and they can be used for both good and bad. You can cast a spell to get a better job, for love or hate, marriage, divorce, fertility, money, envy, business, revenge – the list is almost endless.
A spiteful thought, or an expression of greed or resentment, can set off a train of events that can last for years, but in many cases, they naturally fade away with time.
Curses are a different matter. They are darker and deeper than spells, tend to be longer lasting and rarely disappear over time.
Many though are directed towards land and/or houses rather than people specific.